The foot and ankle in the human body work together to provide balance, stability, movement, and propulsion.

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Ankle Fracture

An ankle fracture is a common injury that involves a break in one or more bones that make up the ankle joint. Sometimes ligaments may also be damaged. Ankle fractures are most often caused by motor vehicle accidents, rolling or twisting of the ankle, tripping or falling or during sports activities.

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Achilles Tendon Rupture

Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve

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Ankle Sprain

A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments, which connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the joint or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump.

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Ankle Instability

Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by the recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. It usually results from repeated ankle sprains, and is generally noticed during movement, but can also occur during standing as well.

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Achilles Tendon Bursitis

The bursa is a sac-like structure containing a lubricating fluid that acts as a cushion to reduce friction between muscle and bones. The Achilles tendon is a large tendon that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus) and is used when you walk, run, and jump.

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Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection on the skin of the foot. It is characterized by itchy, red, scaly rashes between the toes. It is contagious and spreads through contact to the sides of the foot, to the other foot, to your hands and other people when they are in moist areas such as swimming pools and

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Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle

Arthritis is inflammation resulting from the degeneration of cartilage surrounding joints of bones causing pain, swelling and stiffness, and restricted movement. Arthritis of the foot and ankle joint can occur due to fracture, dislocation, wear and tear associated with aging

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A bunion is a bony protuberance that appears on the external surface of especially the big toe, making the toe angle toward the adjacent toe. It is an extra bone and a fluid-filled sac that grows at the base of the big toe.

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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis refers to inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that lies at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toe and forms the arch of your foot. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain.

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Ankle Cartilage Injuries

The ankle joint is an articulation of the end of the tibia and fibula (shin bones) with the talus (heel bone). Osteochondral injuries, also called osteochondritis dissecans, are injuries to the talus bone, characterized by damage to the bone as well as the cartilage covering it. Sometimes the lower end of the tibia or shin bone may also be affected.

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A hammertoe is a deformity of a lesser toe (second through fifth toes), where the toe gets bent upward at the toe’s middle joint, resembling a hammer. The bent portion may rub against a shoe causing pain, irritation and development of corns.

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The arch of the foot usually develops between the age of 3 and 5 years. Flatfoot, also known as fallen arches or pesplanus, is a deformity in which the arch that runs along the sole of the foot is not formed (in children) or collapses to the ground (in adults due to various foot problems).

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Great Toe Arthritis

Coming soon

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Toe Deformities

Toes are important to our feet as they help in walking, balance, weight-bearing and other activities. Deformities in the toes can lead to pain and problems in movement. Some of the common toe deformities include:

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Post-Operative Instructions for foot and ankle surgery

Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.


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